Posts tagged business models

Digital Media Might Be Making a Cash Comeback
Via the Economist:

After years of wreaking havoc, the internet is helping media companies to grow. PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC), a professional-services firm, reckons that revenues for online media and entertainment will increase by around 13% a year for the next five years. Even in music, which took the biggest hit from the internet, downloads are something to sing about. For the first time in over a decade global music-industry revenues grew last year, by about 0.2%, according to the IFPI, a trade group. Online sales just about made up for the drop in physical ones for the first time. Subscription services, such as Spotify and Deezer, let people stream songs over the internet either for a subscription or free with adverts. Online radio is also growing. On-demand and radio streaming services raked in about $1 billion, 15% of the industry’s revenues in America in 2012.

Read the rest of the Economist’s discussion here about how “digital pennies” are stacking up, transforming digital media disruptors like Spotify, YouTube, Netflix, and Hulu into cash … calves. 
Related: The PwC report referenced by the Economist (Global entertainment and media outlook) is here, with macro as well as country- and industry-specific projections.
Image: The Economist via PwC, graph of forecasted spending on digital and non-digital media spending in the next five years

Digital Media Might Be Making a Cash Comeback

Via the Economist:

After years of wreaking havoc, the internet is helping media companies to grow. PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC), a professional-services firm, reckons that revenues for online media and entertainment will increase by around 13% a year for the next five years. Even in music, which took the biggest hit from the internet, downloads are something to sing about. For the first time in over a decade global music-industry revenues grew last year, by about 0.2%, according to the IFPI, a trade group. Online sales just about made up for the drop in physical ones for the first time. Subscription services, such as Spotify and Deezer, let people stream songs over the internet either for a subscription or free with adverts. Online radio is also growing. On-demand and radio streaming services raked in about $1 billion, 15% of the industry’s revenues in America in 2012.

Read the rest of the Economist’s discussion here about how “digital pennies” are stacking up, transforming digital media disruptors like Spotify, YouTube, Netflix, and Hulu into cash … calves. 

Related: The PwC report referenced by the Economist (Global entertainment and media outlook) is here, with macro as well as country- and industry-specific projections.

Image: The Economist via PwC, graph of forecasted spending on digital and non-digital media spending in the next five years

Stepping Up: Al Jazeera Takes on US Cable News
After a series of fits and starts, Al Jazeera America launches today.
The network had tried to enter the US market over the years. When that didn’t work it bought Al Gore’s Current TV for $500 million to essentially get broadcast rights to 48 million homes. Consider that a cost to entry.
US media is skeptical about its possibility for success. “Al Jazeera America launches without significant advertiser base,” says the New York Post; “Al Jazeera America Will Have To Work Hard To Win Viewers,” says NPR; “Al Jazeera America faces more than the usual new-kid challenges,” chimes the Los Angeles Times; “Some Advertisers View Al Jazeera America as Too Risky: Conservative clients are balking,” warns AdWeek.
And all this is true, of course. The network entered American consciousness during the Iraq War. As US outlets focused on where missiles were launched from, Al Jazeera often spent time on where those missiles landed. Sadly, one of those missiles killed an Al Jazeera reporter.
At the time, US Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld accused the network of “enflaming” Arab passions. “You could say it causes the loss of life,” he said of Al Jazeera. “It’s causing Iraqi people to be killed.”
And so, bogeyman. Terrorism. Al Jazeera.
This is the lens through which many Americans know it.
I started paying attention to the network around 2003/2004 as well. I was working in Saudi Arabia. I remember watching broadcasts of Osama Bin Laden. And these were important broadcasts that weren’t being shown on US television. This was, after all, the man who bombed the World Trade Center. You would think people would want to hear what he had to say. But hearing what he had to say was anti-American and Al Jazeera, by showing it, was anti-American by default.
Now, ten years later, Al Jazeera opens its New York offices. It begins broadcasting to America. I wish it the best of luck. Anyone who flipped to its online, live coverage of the Arab Spring knows how well they can do what they do.
And so, let’s watch them launch. They do so with some familiar faces. John Seigenthaler, former weekend anchor of NBC Nightly News, is on board. So too Joie Chen (CBS News and CNN) and Antonio Mora (Good Morning America). Ditto Soledad O’Brien.
And the network’s mission is less talk, more hard hitting news. As Brian Stelter kicks off his piece for the New York Times:

Fourteen hours of straight news every day. Hard-hitting documentaries. Correspondents in oft-overlooked corners of the country. And fewer commercials than any other news channel.
It sounds like something a journalism professor would imagine. In actuality, it is Al Jazeera America.

Can’t argue against that. We’ll be tuning in. — Michael
Related 01, circa 2009: Fred Kaplan, Why I Love Al Jazeera.
Related 02, circa today: Nikki Usher, Can Al Jazeera Win the Cable Wars?
The Schedule: That would be here.

Stepping Up: Al Jazeera Takes on US Cable News

After a series of fits and starts, Al Jazeera America launches today.

The network had tried to enter the US market over the years. When that didn’t work it bought Al Gore’s Current TV for $500 million to essentially get broadcast rights to 48 million homes. Consider that a cost to entry.

US media is skeptical about its possibility for success. “Al Jazeera America launches without significant advertiser base,” says the New York Post; “Al Jazeera America Will Have To Work Hard To Win Viewers,” says NPR; “Al Jazeera America faces more than the usual new-kid challenges,” chimes the Los Angeles Times; “Some Advertisers View Al Jazeera America as Too Risky: Conservative clients are balking,” warns AdWeek.

And all this is true, of course. The network entered American consciousness during the Iraq War. As US outlets focused on where missiles were launched from, Al Jazeera often spent time on where those missiles landed. Sadly, one of those missiles killed an Al Jazeera reporter.

At the time, US Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld accused the network of “enflaming” Arab passions. “You could say it causes the loss of life,” he said of Al Jazeera. “It’s causing Iraqi people to be killed.”

And so, bogeyman. Terrorism. Al Jazeera.

This is the lens through which many Americans know it.

I started paying attention to the network around 2003/2004 as well. I was working in Saudi Arabia. I remember watching broadcasts of Osama Bin Laden. And these were important broadcasts that weren’t being shown on US television. This was, after all, the man who bombed the World Trade Center. You would think people would want to hear what he had to say. But hearing what he had to say was anti-American and Al Jazeera, by showing it, was anti-American by default.

Now, ten years later, Al Jazeera opens its New York offices. It begins broadcasting to America. I wish it the best of luck. Anyone who flipped to its online, live coverage of the Arab Spring knows how well they can do what they do.

And so, let’s watch them launch. They do so with some familiar faces. John Seigenthaler, former weekend anchor of NBC Nightly News, is on board. So too Joie Chen (CBS News and CNN) and Antonio Mora (Good Morning America). Ditto Soledad O’Brien.

And the network’s mission is less talk, more hard hitting news. As Brian Stelter kicks off his piece for the New York Times:

Fourteen hours of straight news every day. Hard-hitting documentaries. Correspondents in oft-overlooked corners of the country. And fewer commercials than any other news channel.

It sounds like something a journalism professor would imagine. In actuality, it is Al Jazeera America.

Can’t argue against that. We’ll be tuning in. — Michael

Related 01, circa 2009: Fred Kaplan, Why I Love Al Jazeera.

Related 02, circa today: Nikki Usher, Can Al Jazeera Win the Cable Wars?

The Schedule: That would be here.

Vice was once a humble magazine about doing heroin and having sex (on heroin). Now, Vice is a global multimedia company, partly owned by Fox, valued at $1.4 billion. Vice is so successful that it no longer needs to exist.

On Friday, news broke that 21st Century Fox, which was recently spun off from News Corp, is sinking $70 million into Vice for a 5% stake in the company. That means the notional value of Vice as a whole is $1.4 billion. That means that Vice is worth about six times as much as the Washington Post, and just a wee bit less than the New York Times. If there was any doubt left, the counterculture has now become the establishment. There is now only one degree of separation between Rupert Murdoch and “The Meth-Fueled, Weeklong Orgies Ravaging London’s Gay-Sex Party Scene.”
Hamilton Nolan, Gawker. The Revolution Will Not Be Vice.

[Was hard] news ever commercial?

Gerald J. Baldasty’s book, The Commercialization of News in the Nineteenth Century, makes a case clear as spring water that hard news has almost never been a mass commercial enterprise.

The American newspapers of the 1820s and early 1830s were creatures of political parties, edited by zealots. Essentially propaganda sheets, these newspapers were “devoted to winning elections,” as Baldasty wrote… Without newspapers, top political organizer Martin Van Buren once said, “we might as well hang our harps on willows.”

Political parties supported the papers financially, and when editors strayed from the party line into independence, the parties would dump their newspapers.

Yahoo admits this blog is 75% air

cnnmoneytech:

Well, kind of.

The tech world reeled when Yahoo announced in May that it would buy Tumblr, the weblogs platform favored by those tech-savvy young ‘uns, for a total of $1.1 billion.

Five intriguing tidbits about the deal came out in Yahoo’s quarterly financial documents, which landed last night.

Most eye-popping: Yahoo bought Tumblr for $990 million (the remainder of the billion-plus total goes to founder David Karp and other Tumblr employees), and an incredible $751 million of that value was attributed to “goodwill.”

Goodwill is an accounting term for the worth of an intangible asset blahblahblah, and in this case it means brand value. So 75% of Tumblr’s value lies in its cool factor. (More details in our main CNNMoney story here.)

FJP: Read through for the rest but know who could have used a perception of cool? The Boston Globe. Founded in 1872, it sold to Boston Red Sox owner John Henry for $70 million. Or, if you take into account pensions and other debts, it sold for negative $40 million.

The Washington Post might wish it had some “goodwill” too. Amazon founder Jeff Bezos, of course, just bought the 136-year-old paper for $250 million.

Takeaways: Don’t get old. Stay cool. Valuations are a weird gig.

Politicians in Rajasthan speak about the growing trend in Indian newspapers to offer politicians favorable coverage for money. “A local paper offered me a package,” said a Rajasthan lawmaker. If he paid the amount of money that particular newspaper was demanding, he would get favorable coverage. If he declined to pay, the newspaper would slander him in its pages.

Vinay Sitapati, The New York Times. Hindi Paper Finds Success Going Hyperlocal.

FJP: Sketchy business model of its competitors aside, this is a fascinating profile of the Patrika newspaper group in India.

Rajasthan Patrika, which is printed in 33 main and 250 local editions has a readership of 14.6 million steadily grown since 1956 when its founder started the paper with a $8.30 loan. Yes, eight dollars and 30 cents.

Its growth has been attributed, in part, to focusing on the hyperlocal and going where other publishers have no reporters.

Rajasthan Patrika has not been accused of participating in the pay scheme indicated in the quote above.

Steve Jobs: Everything I Create Will Become Obsolete

Trailer for Steve Jobs: Visionary Entrepreneur.

Via Silicon Valley Historical Association:

Steve Jobs: Visionary Entrepreneur is a 60-minute documentary built around a 20-minute interview of Steve Jobs in 1994 that was conducted by the Silicon Valley Historical Association.

Steve Jobs was asked to give advice to young entrepreneurs who wanted to go out and start their own businesses. He talks about risk and the willingness to fail, the role of building illegal blue boxes prior to founding Apple Computer, and his philosophy on how to approach life.

FJP: We are all but sediment.

Is Yahoo Trying to Acquire Tumblr?
All Things D reports that Yahoo is trying to get its cool on with a potential Tumblr acquisition:

Earlier this week, Yahoo CFO Ken Goldman spoke at JP Morgan’s Global Technology conference and underscored the need for the aging Silicon Valley Internet giant to attract more users from the coveted 18-to-24-years-old age bracket. Along with more marketing, he explicitly said Yahoo needed to be “cool again.” …According to sources close to the situation, that could mean a strategic alliance and investment in or outright buy of perhaps the coolest Internet company of late: Tumblr.

Adweek follows up saying a deal could be done by this weekend, adding:

Such an acquisition could be just what CEO [Marissa] Mayer has been looking for to turn around Yahoo’s momentum; Tumblr has the potential to excite the engineering/Silicon Valley community (even though it’s based in New York) while recapturing the imagination of advertisers, who have grown to view Yahoo as big but stale.
While its revenue is modest, Tumblr has positioned itself as one of the few players in the digital ad world that is well suited for brand advertising. And Tumblr is also the domain of the young, cool and creative crowd—not currently a Yahoo sweet spot.
From Tumblr’s point of view, the deal also would seem to make a lot of sense. The company has been looking to make a big exit to justify its huge valuation.

Over at GigaOm, Om Malik suggests Facebook might try to swoop in on a deal.:

We have heard that Yahoo is worried that Facebook could swoop in at the last minute and beat it to the buzzer. If the Instagram acquisition was any indication, then we shouldn’t doubt [Mark] Zuckerberg’s salesmanship. [Tumblr’s David] Karp is said to have a close relationship with Facebook and was recently spotted at the Facebook Home launch. Facebook could use the much needed younger 18-to-24 year old demographic, something it (successfully) tried to acquire with Instagram. A Facebook spokesperson declined to comment.

Word of warning via 37signals: What happens after Yahoo acquires you:

Whether it’s Flickr, Delicious, MyBlogLog, or Upcoming, the post-purchase story is a similar one. Both sides talk about all the wonderful things they will do together. Then reality sets in. They get bogged down trying to overcome integration obstacles, endless meetings, and stifling bureaucracy. The products slow down or stop moving forward entirely. Once they hit the two-year mark and are free to leave, the founders take off. The sites are left to flounder or ride into the sunset. And customers are left holding the bag.

Sweet.

Is Yahoo Trying to Acquire Tumblr?

All Things D reports that Yahoo is trying to get its cool on with a potential Tumblr acquisition:

Earlier this week, Yahoo CFO Ken Goldman spoke at JP Morgan’s Global Technology conference and underscored the need for the aging Silicon Valley Internet giant to attract more users from the coveted 18-to-24-years-old age bracket. Along with more marketing, he explicitly said Yahoo needed to be “cool again.” …According to sources close to the situation, that could mean a strategic alliance and investment in or outright buy of perhaps the coolest Internet company of late: Tumblr.

Adweek follows up saying a deal could be done by this weekend, adding:

Such an acquisition could be just what CEO [Marissa] Mayer has been looking for to turn around Yahoo’s momentum; Tumblr has the potential to excite the engineering/Silicon Valley community (even though it’s based in New York) while recapturing the imagination of advertisers, who have grown to view Yahoo as big but stale.

While its revenue is modest, Tumblr has positioned itself as one of the few players in the digital ad world that is well suited for brand advertising. And Tumblr is also the domain of the young, cool and creative crowd—not currently a Yahoo sweet spot.

From Tumblr’s point of view, the deal also would seem to make a lot of sense. The company has been looking to make a big exit to justify its huge valuation.

Over at GigaOm, Om Malik suggests Facebook might try to swoop in on a deal.:

We have heard that Yahoo is worried that Facebook could swoop in at the last minute and beat it to the buzzer. If the Instagram acquisition was any indication, then we shouldn’t doubt [Mark] Zuckerberg’s salesmanship. [Tumblr’s David] Karp is said to have a close relationship with Facebook and was recently spotted at the Facebook Home launch. Facebook could use the much needed younger 18-to-24 year old demographic, something it (successfully) tried to acquire with Instagram. A Facebook spokesperson declined to comment.

Word of warning via 37signals: What happens after Yahoo acquires you:

Whether it’s Flickr, Delicious, MyBlogLog, or Upcoming, the post-purchase story is a similar one. Both sides talk about all the wonderful things they will do together. Then reality sets in. They get bogged down trying to overcome integration obstacles, endless meetings, and stifling bureaucracy. The products slow down or stop moving forward entirely. Once they hit the two-year mark and are free to leave, the founders take off. The sites are left to flounder or ride into the sunset. And customers are left holding the bag.

Sweet.

Selling Data, Taking Things in Your Hands Edition
A common truism says that if it’s free and on the Web, you’re not the customer but the product being sold. Also common is the following reaction: what can I do about that. The less common reaction: How can I get in on that?
Try this one on as a thought experiment.
Via Slate:

In a world of privacy-invading smartphone apps and government-grade spyware, keeping personal data personal online can seem like a difficult task. But could you make money by choosing to give away logs of your most intimate data?
Federico Zannier is trying to find out. Emails, chat logs, location data, browser history, screenshots—you name it, the New York-based software developer is selling it all.With a Kickstarter campaign launched earlier this month, Zannier, a 28-year-old Italian-born master’s student at NYU, is offering to hand over a day’s digital footprint for a measly $2. He says he “violated his own privacy” starting back in February for about 50 days straight, recording screenshots and webcam snaps of himself every 30 seconds and tracking his every footstep using GPS technology. He logged the address of each Web page he visited—storing some 3 million lines of text—and accumulated a massive trove of 21,124 webcam photos and 19,920 screen shots.
Zannier’s aim, somewhat paradoxically, is to take ownership of his own data by selling it. He points out that we often hand over our private data unwittingly, given that few people take the time to read the terms and conditions of apps and online services. Companies rake in millions of dollars selling our information to marketing firms while we receive little in return. But Zannier’s Kickstarter is not just out to make a statement about online privacy—he plans to use the funds to create a browser extension and a smartphone app that he says will help others sell their own data. “If more people do the same, I’m thinking marketers could just pay us directly for our data,” he writes on his Kickstarter page. “It might sound crazy, but so is giving all our data away for free.”

So, just as the Web often disrupts, let’s cut out the middle man.
Image: It’s Free, But They Sell Your Information, via Telco 2.0.

Selling Data, Taking Things in Your Hands Edition

A common truism says that if it’s free and on the Web, you’re not the customer but the product being sold. Also common is the following reaction: what can I do about that. The less common reaction: How can I get in on that?

Try this one on as a thought experiment.

Via Slate:

In a world of privacy-invading smartphone apps and government-grade spyware, keeping personal data personal online can seem like a difficult task. But could you make money by choosing to give away logs of your most intimate data?

Federico Zannier is trying to find out. Emails, chat logs, location data, browser history, screenshots—you name it, the New York-based software developer is selling it all.With a Kickstarter campaign launched earlier this month, Zannier, a 28-year-old Italian-born master’s student at NYU, is offering to hand over a day’s digital footprint for a measly $2. He says he “violated his own privacy” starting back in February for about 50 days straight, recording screenshots and webcam snaps of himself every 30 seconds and tracking his every footstep using GPS technology. He logged the address of each Web page he visited—storing some 3 million lines of text—and accumulated a massive trove of 21,124 webcam photos and 19,920 screen shots.

Zannier’s aim, somewhat paradoxically, is to take ownership of his own data by selling it. He points out that we often hand over our private data unwittingly, given that few people take the time to read the terms and conditions of apps and online services. Companies rake in millions of dollars selling our information to marketing firms while we receive little in return. But Zannier’s Kickstarter is not just out to make a statement about online privacy—he plans to use the funds to create a browser extension and a smartphone app that he says will help others sell their own data. “If more people do the same, I’m thinking marketers could just pay us directly for our data,” he writes on his Kickstarter page. “It might sound crazy, but so is giving all our data away for free.”

So, just as the Web often disrupts, let’s cut out the middle man.

Image: It’s Free, But They Sell Your Information, via Telco 2.0.

"Rolling Disaster" at The Times-Picayune

Almost a year ago, New Orleans’ Times-Picayune cut staff, announced that it would stop publishing a daily newspaper in favor of three days a week and tired to pivot to digital first at NOLA.com.

A year into the process The Columbia Journalism Review calls strategic decisions made over the last 12 months a “rolling disaster" while the New York Times’ David Carr calls pretty much everything to do with the Picayune "a jaw-dropping blunder”.

But the Picayune isn’t done. Advance Publications, the paper’s owner, has announced the paper will be a paper. Again. Sort of. But in a different format. Probably because The Advocate, the Baton Rouge daily that’s just set up shop in New Orleans, is looking to eat the Picayune’s lunch.

David Carr tries to explain the Picayune’s return to print:

The new distribution plan is hard to explain, but I will do my best.

On Wednesdays, Fridays and Sundays, a broadsheet called The Times-Picayune will be available for home delivery and on the newsstands for 75 cents. On Mondays, Tuesdays and Thursdays, a tabloid called TPStreet will be available only on newsstands for 75 cents.

In addition, a special electronic edition of TPStreet will be available to the three-day subscribers of the home-delivered newspaper. On Saturdays, there will be early print editions of the Sunday Times-Picayune with some breaking news and some Sunday content.

There’s more, but you get the idea — or not. It’s an array of products, frequencies and approaches that is difficult to explain, much less market.

The move was clearly defensive, unveiled the day before John Georges, the new owner of The Advocate, announced that it would expand its incursion into New Orleans.

If that leaves you shaking your head, try this take by Kevin Allman at The Gambit:

The digitally-focused NOLA Media Group, which cut back print publication of The Times-Picayune to three days a week last year, continued to innovate today by announcing a new plan to print on the days it doesn’t produce a print product, bringing the company up to 7-day-a-week publication, according to an announcement by NOLA Media Group Vice President of Content Jim Amoss.

The report, which is not from The Onion, says the new product, to be called “TPStreet,” will launch this summer in newsboxes around the city and cost 75 cents, just like the daily paper, which it will not be, because it is more innovative than that…

…The innovative publication is in response to “a repeated request” from home-delivery subscribers to get a delivered daily paper, but it will not be home delivered, [President and Publisher Ricky] Mathews said.

So, The Advocate’s is trying to invade and the Picayune is playing oddball defense.

"Our hope is that we will be treated to an invigorating old-time press war between The Advocate and The Times-Picayune," Jed Horne, a former editor at The Times-Picayune tells Carr, “but of course, it could end up being two dinosaurs fighting over the last mud hole on an overheated planet.”

Let’s hope not.

A trade group says that newspapers like the New York Times have seen large increases in circulation, but that’s partly because they are allowed to count their readers multiple times. The industry needs to do better.

Via paidContent:

The latest circulation gains for the NYT and others came courtesy of the Alliance for Audited Media (formerly known as the Audit Bureau of Circulations), an industry group composed of advertising agencies and publishers. The group noted that the numbers are not really comparable to the previous year’s results for a number of reasons, including the fact that some newspapers have launched new subscription formats, stopped printing every day and so on.

As Edmund Lee at Bloomberg points out, the AAM survey — which is somewhat ironically locked behind a paywall — also allows publishers to count their readers multiple times, according to rules adopted recently by the group. In other words, newspapers can count someone who reads the newspaper in print, on the web and on their Kindle as three separate readers. But doesn’t this inflate their readership numbers unreasonably? It sure does. The bottom line is that no one really knows what the “real” readership numbers are for newspapers.

Some argue this has always been the case with newspapers, which is true: publishers have routinely engaged in all kinds of shady tricks to boost their circulation — including special discounts for bulk purchases by hotels and airlines and other giveaways, and even dumping large quantities into ravines or pulping them after printing. On top of that, many papers have inflated their readership numbers for years by claiming that each copy gets read by as many as five people, an estimate that borders on the ridiculous.

Ebooks accounted for 22.55 percent, or nearly a quarter, of U.S. book publishers’ sales in 2012, according to a full-year report released by the Association of American Publishers Thursday. That’s up from 17 percent of sales in 2011 and 3 percent in 2009. Ebook growth continued to plateau, however, suggesting that the industry is maturing.

Loud Silence

Loud Silence in an innovative approach to video journalism made by local people for Africans and an international community. The days of boring news talk shows and static documentaries are over, as we take stories directly from the streets. — Kevin Taylor, Co-Founder, Loud Silence Media.

Loud Silence, a group of Ghanian documentarians, has begun a Kickstarter campaign to help continue telling stories throughout Ghana. 

Here’s some of what they’ve done:

Recently, we have produced pieces on illegal gold mining; discrimination (and murders) against the disabled; amputee football; homes that flood during any rain; waste management and kids who pick through trash for a living; affects of the new oil industry in Ghana; turning garbage into energy; cyber-scammers, and controversial elections and political stories.

Take a look at their Kickstarter and the trailer they’ve created. It’s a good demonstration of the quality and subject matter of their work, and what they’re trying to accomplish within the Ghanian media environment.

FJP: Getting behind local, independent media is important and it would be fantastic to push them well beyond their $12,000 goal.

You can also learn more about them and view their work on their Web site.

Images: Selected stills from the Loud Silence Web site.

Ten Tips Guaranteed to Improve Your Startup Success

As a startup we’re always on the lookout for tips and tricks that might help lead us toward success. Today, we’re thankful for this list by Anil Dash.

  1. Be raised with access to clean drinking water and sanitation. (Every tech billionaire I’ve ever spoken to has a toilet!)
  2. Try to be born in a region that is politically and militarily stable.
  3. Grow up with a family that is as steady and secure as possible.
  4. Have access to at least a basic free education in core subjects.
  5. Avoid being abused by family members, loved ones, friends or acquaintances during the formative years of your life.
  6. Be fluent in English, or have time to dedicate to continuously improving your language skills.
  7. Make sure there’s enough disposable income available to support your learning technology at a younger age.
  8. If you must be a member of an underrepresented community or a woman, get comfortable with suppressing your identity. If not, follow a numbingly conventional definition of dominant masculinity.
  9. Be within a narrow range of physical norms for appearance and ability, as defined by the comfort level of strangers.
  10. Practice articulating your cultural, technological or social aspirations exclusively in economic terms.